Breathing Exercises Calm Mind and Body

Breathing Exercises Calm Mind and Body

Information Resources

By Evelyn Cunico, MA, MSLIS
Posted on October 02, 2016


How can you calm your mind and your body to help manage the stress of everyday life challenges?

Be Aware.
The first step is to learn to be aware that you are feeling stress. For example, if you feel tension in your neck or shoulders, be aware that you are feeling stress.

The second step is to choose a way to manage your stress. For example, if possible, choose to avoid the event that leads to your stress. If you cannot avoid the event, make a decision to change the way you react to stress.

The third step is to practice your new reaction to stress before you experience a stressful event. For example, just as you may schedule 30 minutes of physical exercise into your day, set aside 15 minutes of each day to practice slow, focused breathing.

Practice is Key to Success

There is no single, correct approach for activating the body’s Relaxation Response or using any other mind body technique, according to Herbert Benson, M.D., Mind Body Medical Institute Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Director Emeritus of the Benson-Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital.

For example, some persons do not enjoy being still, so they might prefer focused breathing while doing yoga exercises. However, whichever technique you choose, you must regularly practice that technique to gain benefits.

The goal is to break the train of everyday thoughts, so that your mind and body can relax, according to Benson.

Relaxation Response

Following are steps that can activate the Relaxation Response, a phrase that Benson created in the 1970s to identify the body’s physiological reaction that is opposite to the stress (fight or flight) response.

  • Select a word, a sound, a short prayer, a phrase, or an image, or focus only on your breathing during the exercise.
  • Sit comfortably in a quiet place and close your eyes.
  • Breathe slowly and naturally. As you exhale, repeat or picture silently your word or phrase, or just focus on your breathing.
  • If you keep thinking of other things, do not judge yourself for this, but just return to your focus word and your breath.
  • Continue to repeat these steps for ten to twenty minutes.
  • Practice this exercise once or twice daily.

When practicing this exercise, these are the two most important things to remember, according to Benson:

  • Repetition
  • Letting go of other thoughts

For more information, see the Selected Information Resources that follow this blog.

Disclaimer: The information presented in this blog should not replace the medical advice of your doctor. You should not use this information to diagnose or treat any disease, illness, or other health condition without first consulting with your medical doctor or other healthcare provider.

Selected Information Resources

American Academy of Family Physicians. Stress: How to Cope Better with Life’s Challenges
Summary Note: Tips and exercise steps for managing stress
(Accessed 22 September 2016)

Benson, Herbert, M.D. and William Proctor, J.D. The Relaxation Revolution: Enhancing Your Personal Health through the Science and Genetics of Mind Body Healing. New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc., 2010.
Summary Note: Book highlights scientific evidence that the mind can restructure thinking processes to expect good health, and that the expectation, in turn, influences the body to change its genetic activity in a healthful direction.

Benson, Herbert, M.D. with Marg Stark. Timeless Healing: The Power and Biology of Belief. New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc., 1996.
Summary Note: Chapter 6: The Relaxation Response

Cunico, Evelyn, M.A., M.S. Meditation: Resources for Stress Management. CHIME Consumer Health. November 2014.
Summary Note: Blog identifies resources on the history of meditation, scientific research on meditation, and meditation features, such as relaxed breathing. References link to the Mayo Clinic and the National Institutes of Health.
(Accessed 25 September 2016)

National Institutes of Health. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Relaxation Techniques for Health. Summary Note: Describes relaxation techniques that science researchers have evaluated to find whether the techniques might help to manage a variety of stated health conditions. Includes References and consumer information about NIH Clinical Research Trials.
(Accessed 22 September 2016)

National Institutes of Health. U.S. National Library of Medicine. MedlinePlus. Relaxation Techniques for Stress.
Summary Note: Patient instructions on simple ways to relax, including breathing slowly, biofeedback, progressive relaxation, yoga, and tai chi. Emphasizes the importance of regular, frequent practice.
(Accessed 07 September 2016)

Nemours Foundation. TeensHealth. Yoga: Meditation and Breathing
Summary Note: Explains that meditation and focused breathing are important parts of yoga. Practical step-by-step breathing approaches, with or without yoga. Encourages visualization and daily breathing exercises to develop calmness and self-assurance.
(Accessed 24 September 2016)







Positive Emotions Promote Good Health

Positive Emotions Promote Good Health

Information Resources

By Evelyn Cunico, MA, MSLIS
Health Science Writing | Clinical Medical Searching
Blog Posted November 22, 2015

Research suggests that we can have some control over the emotions that we experience, according to scientists funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), as discussed in an article titled, “Positive Emotions and Your Health,” in the August 2015 issue of NIH News in Health.

Experts say that persons who are emotionally healthy have fewer negative emotions and are able to bounce back faster from difficulties. This quality is called, “resilience.”

Another sign of emotionally healthy persons is that they are able to hold onto positive emotions longer and appreciate the good times.

How can we become more emotionally healthy?

Just as daily exercise helps us to stay physically healthy, certain ways of thinking and being can help to promote emotional wellness.

Ten tips to develop positive emotions:

  1. Think more objectively. Step back from a situation that is causing stress. Being more objective may help you to think of practical ways that work, to deal with the problem.
  2. Express gratitude. Say, thank you, while looking directly at the person you are thanking.
  3. Smile. Make a habit of smiling, when talking with someone in person or on the phone.
  4. Forgive yourself. Everyone makes mistakes. Learn from what went wrong, without dwelling on it.
  5. Spend more time with your friends. Schedule time together for activities you all enjoy.
  6. Develop healthy physical habits. Eat healthy foods, exercise daily, and get enough sleep.
  7. Enjoy your daily accomplishments. When you complete a work assignment or a home project, physically look at what you have accomplished.
  8. Develop your compassion. Give yourself credit for helping other persons.
  9. Explore self-affirmation. Think about how to guide your life by the things you value most.
  10. Remember that variety is truly the spice of life. Build variety into each week, spending time indoors and outdoors, and participating in active and quiet activities.

Information Resources

Selected and Annotated by Evelyn Cunico, MA, MSLIS

Cohn, MA, Fredrickson, BL, Brown, SL, Mikels, JA, Conway, AM ((2009). Happiness Unpacked: Positive Emotions Increase Life Satisfaction by Building Resilience. Emotion. June; 9(3):361-368.
Summary Note: Authors suggest that it is in-the-moment positive emotions, and not more general positive evaluations of one’s life, that may lead to coping resources and life satisfaction.
(Free Full Text Article accessed 12 November 2015)

Davidson, RL, with Begley, S (2012). The Emotional Life of Your Brain: How Its Unique Patterns Affect the Way You Think, Feel, and Live — and How You Can Change Them. Print Book (New York: Penguin).
Summary Note: Authors discuss six emotional styles, arising from systematic studies of the brain. Book includes strategies that persons can use to change their emotional responses to everyday events.

Davidson, RL (2014). One of  a Kind: The Neurobiology of Individuality. Cerebrum. May-June; 2014: 8.
Summary Note: Author discusses how experience physically changes brain pathways involved in emotional responses. Article provides evidence, based in part on brain imaging, that psychological interventions, such as mindfulness meditation (MM) and compassion training, can increase resilience and well-being.
(Free Full Text Article accessed 12 November 2015)

Fredrickson, BL (2008). Open Hearts Build Lives: Positive Emotions, Induced through Loving-Kindness-Meditation, Build Consequential Personal Resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. November; 95(5): 1045-62.
Summary Note: Author discusses how loving-kindness-meditation (LKM) produces daily experiences of positive emotions, which, in turn, produces increased social support and decreased illness symptoms.
(Free Full Text Article accessed 16 November 2015).

Fredrickson, BL (2004). The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions. Philosophical Transactions B. The Royal Society of London Biological Sciences. September 29; 359(1449):1367-1378. Published online 17 August 2004.
Summary Note: Author explains the “broaden-and-build” theory,” by which a person can “build” positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love, to improve their overall well-being.
(Free Full Text Article accessed 16 November 2015).

Fredrickson, BL (1998). What Good are Positive Emotions? Review of General Psychology : Journal of Division 1, of the American Psychological Association , 2(3):300-319.
Summary Note: Article provides observational evidence that persons can learn to regulate positive emotions, and so contribute to their own good physical and mental health.
(Free Full Text Article accessed 16 November 2015)

Kok, BE, Coffey, KA, Cohn, MA, Catalino, LI, Vacharkulksemsuk, T, Algoe, SB, Brantley, M, Fredrickson, BL (2013). How Positive Emotions Build Physical Health  . Psychological Science. July 1; 24(7): 1123-32.
Summary Note: Authors suggest a strong tie, over time, between a person’s positive emotions, their perception of positive social interactions, and their physical health.
(Abstract accessed 12 November 2015. Full Text Article available by subscription from Sage Publications.)

Mayo Clinic Staff. Patient Care and Health Information. Meditation: A Simple, Fast Way to Reduce Stress.
Summary Note: Discusses different forms of meditation, as well as ways you can practice meditation on your own.
(Accessed 21 November 2015)

National Institutes of Health. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). Meditation.
Summary Note: List of information resources about meditation for medical conditions, such as anxiety, depression, high blood pressure, and pain.
(Accessed 22 November 2015)

National Institutes of Health (August 2015). Positive Emotions and Your Health. NIH News in Health. A monthly newsletter from the National Institutes of Health, part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Summary Note:
Newsletter article discusses in plain language how a positive mindset may help to improve physical health.
(Accessed 11 August 2015)








Meditation: Resources for Stress Management

Meditation: Resources for Stress Management

By Evelyn Cunico, M.A., M.S.

Posted November 24, 2014


For thousands of years, many cultures throughout the world have practiced meditation for religious and spiritual reasons. For example, Hinduism (the dominant religion of India) and Buddhism (a religion of eastern and central Asia) are among the earliest religions teaching meditation.

At ancient East Indian archaeological sites, archaeologists have discovered carved images of figures in yoga-like postures, appearing to be practicing meditation.


Today, in Western culture, meditation is often secular, used as a form of mind-body medicine.

Meditation may be practiced for health-related reasons, such as to increase calmness, to gain a new perspective on stressful situations, to cope with illness, or to enhance overall well -being.

Meditation is not a replacement for conventional medical treatment. However, daily meditation may help you to relax and to manage stress.

Features of Meditation

Typically, meditation techniques share the following features:

  • A quiet location. Especially if you are a beginner, practicing meditation may be easier if you are in a quiet location, away from cell phones, televisions, radios or the talk of persons who may be nearby.
  • A comfortable posture. You can select the posture you would like for meditation, such as walking, standing, lying down, or sitting. Some persons meditate while practicing yoga.
  • Focused attention. Focusing your attention helps to free your mind from distractions that cause stress and worry. You can focus your attention on a mantra, your breathing, or on a specific object, such as an image.
  • An open perspective. While meditating, you maintain an open perspective, letting distractions, such as emotions and thoughts, come and go naturally, without judgment.
  • Relaxed breathing. The Mayo Clinic emphasizes the importance of relaxed breathing when meditating. When you breathe deeply with an even pace your breathing slows down. You also reduce the use of shoulder, neck, and upper chest muscles, allowing you to breathe more efficiently.

Meditation and Science

The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) is the federal government lead agency for scientific research on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). CAM is one of the 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

The NCCAM website, titled, “Meditation: What You Need to Know,” presents an overview of the effectiveness and safety of meditation.

The NCCAM overview also presents useful summaries of recent studies of meditation, as it relates to stress-reduction programs.

In addition, the NCCAM overview summarizes meditation studies related to specific medical conditions, such as anxiety, high blood pressure, irritable bowel syndrome, smoking cessation, and other conditions.

Results from a 2012 NCCAM-funded study suggest that meditation can affect activity in the amygdala (a part of the brain involved in processing emotions). The study suggests that different types of meditation can affect the amygdala differently, even when the person is not meditating. So, meditation may have an effect on brain function, even outside a meditative state.

Meditation Techniques

 Herbert Benson, M.D., Harvard Medical School, and other researchers conducted studies, finding that TM Meditation brought about bodily changes, such as a drop in heart rate and a drop in breathing rate, which Benson later named, the “Relaxation Response,” in his book of the same name [see References at the end of this blog].

If you have ten to 20 minutes, you may follow Benson’s “Steps to Elicit the Relaxation Response.”

The following two steps are the most important to bring about the Relaxation Response, according to Benson’s book:

  • Repeat a word, sound, phrase, or prayer.
  • Disregard everyday thoughts, without judging them, and return to your repetition.

If you have one minute, two minutes, or three minutes, you may try, “Mini-relaxation exercises,” from the Harvard HEALTHBeat e-newsletter. For example, while sitting, breathe slowly and deeply in the following way:

  • As you breathe in, quietly repeat slowly to yourself, “I am.”
  • As you breathe out,  repeat slowly to yourself, “at peace.”

 Tips to Remember:

When under stress, your body reacts by releasing hormones that produce the “fight-or-flight” response. Your heart rate and breathing rate increase and blood vessels narrow, restricting the flow of blood.

In contrast, the Relaxation Response slows the heart rate, lowers blood pressure, and decreases levels of stress hormones.

The NCCAM offers “Five Things to Know About Relaxation Techniques for Stress.”

  • Relaxation techniques are generally safe, but there is limited evidence of usefulness for specific health conditions.
  • Relaxation techniques include a number of practices, such as progressive relaxation, guided imagery, and deep breathing exercises.
  • Relaxation techniques often combine breathing and focused attention, to calm the mind and the body.
  • Most relaxation techniques can be self-taught.
  • Do not use relaxation techniques as a replacement for conventional care or to postpone seeing a doctor about a medical problem.

A disclaimer: The information presented in this blog should not replace the medical advice of your doctor. You should not use this information to diagnose or treat any disease without first consulting with your medical doctor or other healthcare provider.


 Benson, Herbert, M.D., Harvard Medical School. “Steps to Elicit the Relaxation Response.”
(Accessed 18 October 2014)

Benson, Herbert, M.D., with Miriam Z. Klipper. The Relaxation Response. Updated edition, paperback. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 2000. [Hardcover edition published by William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1975].

Benson – Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine. Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.
(Accessed 22 November 2014)

Bonadonna, R. “Meditation’s Impact on Chronic Illness.” Holistic Nursing Practice. 2003 Nov-Dec;17(6):309-19.
(Abstract accessed 14 October 2014)

Harvard Health Publications. Harvard Medical School. HEALTHbeat e-Newsletter. “Mini-Relaxation Exercises: A Quick-Fix in Stressful Moments.” Archive: November 10, 2012.
(Accessed 13 October 2014)

Mayo Clinic. Patient Care and Health Information. Tests and Procedures. “Meditation.”
(Accessed 14 October 2014)

National Institutes of Health. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). “Five Things to Know About Relaxation Techniques for Stress.”
(Accessed 16 November 2014)

National Institutes of Health. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). “Meditation: What You Need to Know.”
(Accessed 24 November 2014)

National Institutes of Health. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). “Meditation Training Program Shows Brain Effects Even Outside a Meditative State.”
(Accessed 22 October 2014)

 National Institutes of Health. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). “Relaxation Techniques for Health: An Introduction.”
(Accessed 13 October 2014)

New World Encyclopedia. Entry, “Meditation.”
(Accessed 21 October 2014)